Post Hospitalisation Care
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Pyometra results from the accumulation of purulent exydate in the uterus. This is produced following the prolonged stimulation of the uterus by progesterone and the uterine changes which result favor the development of secondary bacterial infections.
Pyometra can manifest at any age after puberty but is most common in animals aver 9 years. Dogs are more often affected than cats. Risk factors include age hormonal treatments (estrogens or progesterones) irregular estrus cycles or ovarian illness. A history of incomplete ovariohysterectomy. Previous treatment to include abortion or a drop-down may also be present.
In general pyometra is associated with anorexia, vomiting lethargy and dehydration. Furthermore, with dogs we frequently observe an increase in the consumption of water and mictions . Viginal discharge and fever may also be present. If the pyometra is not treated, it can be accompanied by com by complications leading to the death of the animal (septicemia, acute renal insufficiency, acute hepatic insufficiency coagulation disorder and others).
The physical examination and diagnostic procedures (blood test, urine analysis, x-rays and abdominal sound) permit to differentiate pyometra from other conditions such as mucometra, gestation , vaginitis, a tumor of the reproductive system, uterine torsion , post partum metritis and other systemic illnesses.
As for treatment, the animal will be stabilized as needed with the help of intravenous fluid therapy and antibiotics. An anti-pain medication may also be administered depending on the degree of pain of the animal. Next, the recommended procedure is a complete ovariohysterectomy that is the removal of the ovaries and entire uterus. This permits a rapid clearing of the infection , and eliminates the risk of reccurence.
In a case where the affected animal is a young reproducer and the pyometra is open( with vaginal discharge), a medical treatment may be attempted (postaglandines). Complications may arise with surgical or medical treatment. This is why the animal should be hospitalized in the ICU fir a couple of days, with fluidtherapy, antibiotic, pain control and blood analysis to follow up on conditions such as coagulation problems, renal and hepatic failure. In the case where medical treatment has been carried out, an ultra-sound should be done every two (2) days to evaluate the response of the treatment.
The best way to prevent pyometra is to perform an ovariohysterectomy on all females not destined for reproduction and those removed from breeding.
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